A form of government in which the power to rule is held by a small, usually self-appointed elite. However, he succeeded in helping to cause the rebellion. [47] The rebel leaders met that night to discuss who would become the rebellion's leader after the death of Anderson and Lount's refusal to lead on his own. the rebellion of 1837-38, why did it happen? [65] Upon hearing more details about the rebellion in Toronto, Duncombe convened a series of public meetings to spread news of the supposed atrocities committed by Bond Head against all suspected reformers to help increase anti-government support. The British Reform movement, organized as "Political Unions," had achieved the Great Reform Bill of 1832 which broadened the electoral franchiseand helped eliminate political corruption. 0 0 1. by Marianne Brandis. They obtained supplies from supporters in the United States, resulting in British reprisals (see Caroline affair). "Rebellion in Upper Canada". [39] Government officials met at the Lieutenant Governor's residence on December 2 to discuss how to stop rumours of a rebellion. Rolph and Morrison were reluctant about the plan so Mackenzie sought Anthony Van Egmond to help lead the armed forces. Likewise everything coming into Upper Canada from Britain — including a great many immigrants — did so by sailing up the St. Lawrence first. If the farmer refused to come to court in Toronto, they would automatically forfeit the case and their property subjected to a sheriff's sale. of politicians and officials known as the Family Compact. Reformist leaders such as Marshall Spring Bidwell, who had been Speaker of the Assembly, [33], In November 1837, in the lead-up to the Political Union's Constitutional Convention, Mackenzie published a satire in the Constitution, a round table discussion by John Locke, Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, Oliver Goldsmith and William Pitt and others. The rebels refused to march until daylight. In Upper Canada alot of them were actually annexationists wanting to become part of the US (you have to remember at this point in history most Upper Canadians were either first or second generation Americans who came there after Lord Simcoe … Nothing brings Canadians together like the threat of annexation by the United States. The rebellion led directly to Lord Durham's Report on the Affairs of British North America, and to The British North America Act, 1840, which partially reformed the British provinces into a unitary system, leading to the formation of Canada as a nation in 1867. [13], Sir Francis Bond Head was appointed as Lieutenant-Governor and the Reform movement believed he would support their ideas. Lount encouraged some riflemen to return fire before realising that the enemy had left the battlefield. [44] Mackenzie took both men prisoner but did not search them for weapons as they gave their word that they did not have any. There is continuing debate about who was responsible for the rebellion and the degree of popular support it enjoyed. He also urged them to seize control of the government. The Executive Council resigned, provoking widespread discontent and an election in 1834. The news of chaos in Lower Canada reached the people of Upper Canada in October of 1837. Lount and the riflemen marched to find the rebels who fled and found Mackenzie trying to convince the rebels to continue their path towards Toronto. Most of the militia volunteers disbanded in 1838 and went back to their regular lives. After the War of 1812, there was growing discontent in Upper Canada with the elite clique of politicians and officials known as the Family Compact. This contributed to economic hardship and increased unemployment throughout the province. Their objective was to engage a smaller force of armed government loyalists and militia. The united Province of Canada came into being in 1841. If Bond refused, they would declare independence from the British Empire. In Lower Canada it was mostly a call for independence in order to preserve the French way of life and to pursue Canadien financial interests. [46] As they were approaching Montgomery's Tavern Powell mortally shot Anthony Anderson in the neck and escaped back to Toronto to report to Bond Head. The rebels set up a roadblock south of the tavern on Yonge Street that Moodie tried riding through. The new Tory-dominated Legislature passed laws that exacerbated tensions including continuing the Legislative session after the death of the King, prohibiting members of the Legislature from serving as Executive Councillors, making it easier to sue indebted farmers, protecting the Bank of Upper Canada from bankruptcy, and giving Legislative Councillors charters for their own banks. Signing up enhances your TCE experience with the ability to save items to your personal reading list, and access the interactive map. The 1837 rebellion in Upper Canada was a less violent, more limited affair than the insurrection that same year in neighbouring Lower Canada, although its leaders, including William Lyon Mackenzie, were no less serious in their demands for democratic reform, and an end to the rule of a privileged oligarchy. [19] He appealed to the people's desire to maintain part of the British Empire and a paternalistic attitude of the Crown providing goods for the people. uprising. After the rebellion, the British Government sent a man called Lord Durham to investigate the situation and he spent five month in the colony and wrote a long report. Alternative Title: Rebellions of 1837–38. [57] His advice was rejected, so he proposed entrenching and defending their position at the tavern. As a rare instance of armed insurgency in British North America, the 1837 Rebellion in what is now Ontario allows insight into the thinking and aspirations of early settlers. -instead of accepting the 92 resolutions, the British The large number of migrants led American legislators to speculate that bringing Upper Canada into the American fold would be a "mere matter of marching". In fact, they brought Britain and the US to the verge of war. [31] Rolph convinced Morrison to support the rebellion but they also told Mackenzie to get confirmation of support from rural communities. Murray, and Barry Wright (2 vol 1996, 2002), This page was last edited on 2 January 2021, at 01:59. These grievances breathed life into the nascent  [55] Morrison was arrested and charged with treason while Rolph sent a letter encouraging Mackenzie to send the rebels home then fled to the United States. [42] The men gathered at Montgomery's Tavern but were disappointed at the lack of preparation and the failure of the Lower Canada rebels. [50] Rolph and Robert Baldwin met the rebel troops at Gallows Hill and stated the government's proposal of full amnesty to the rebels if they dispersed immediately. The rebellions in both Upper and Lower Canada led directly to the appointment of Lord Durham and [37] The mayor of Toronto refused to ring the City Hall bell if a rebellion began because he felt Fitzgibbon was causing unnecessary concern over a possible revolt. The rebels fled north and the morale of the rebellion was irreparably broken. Although many rebels, including Duncombe, had fled prior to the upcoming battle due to hearing about the failure of Mackenzie in Toronto and general disorganization, there were still some present in Scotland, Ontario and MacNab commenced his attack on Scotland on December 14, causing the remaining rebels to flee after only a few shots were fired. Mackenzie ignored the letter and continued his plan for rebellion. He was a fierce critic of the Family Compact and the government's refusal to give political rights to American settlers. The disapproval of this was strongest among the so-called late Loyalists and their descendants. (Hundreds of Black Canadians volunteered Fourteen-year-old Adam Wheeler arrives in Toronto in the autumn of 1837 with his uncle’s family. The Compact dominated the running of the government. Top Answer. [68] Mackenzie, Duncombe, Rolph and 200 supporters fled to Navy Island in the Niagara River and declared themselves the Republic of Canada on December 13. The Upper Canada Rebellion was against the government of British colony of Upper Canada in December 1837. Chateau Clique. In 1837, however, Mackenzie was emboldened by the insurgency in Lower Canada and the transfer of all British troops there from Upper Canada. was already moving towards gradual change through its appointment of more reform-minded governors: Sir James Kempt (1828–30), Lord Aylmer (1830–35) However, its leaders, including William Lyon Mackenzie, were equally serious in their demands. Buckner, P., Rebellion in Upper Canada (2019). However, many reformers, including Bidwell, fled to the US. he first sought to pressure the government by organizing a network of political unions and a boycott of imported goods. The meeting created the Committee of Vigilance and signed a declaration urging every community to send delegates to a congress in Toronto and discuss remedies for their concerns. leaders, such as Robert Baldwin, to reshape the reform movement along To begin with, the rebellion in Upper Canada failed miserably because of the lack of military experience from the rebels, and, as a result, it wasnà  t very threathening. [12] The Canadian Alliance Society was reborn as the Constitutional Reform Society in 1836, and led by the more moderate reformer, Dr William W. Baldwin. [53] The rebels believed there were several battalions of troops firing upon them and several ran away. As a member of the Legislative Assembly, They controlled the system of patronagethroughout the colony and used political office and influence to further their own business interests. [38], A Tory supporter obtained a copy of Mackenzie's declaration and showed it to authorities in Toronto. [27], On October 9 1837, a messenger from the Patriotes informed Mackenzie that the rebellion in Lower Canada was going to begin. The Fenian Raids happened while Canada was slowly moving towards Confederation. In Lower Canada many French habitants were suffering from famine and the accumulation of huge debts due to poor harvests. A large number of the settlers were of American origin. In the 1820s, settlers of American origin were also denied political rights, including the choice to swear allegiance to the Crown. This included the union of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada and the eventual introduction of responsible government. The Society took its final form as the Toronto Political Union in 1837 and they organized local "Vigilance Committees" to elect delegates to a Constitutional Convention in July 1837. [25], Mackenzie gathered reformers on July 28 and 31, 1837 to discuss their grievances with the government. In March 1837 the Tories passed a law making it cheaper to sue farmers by allowing city merchants to sue in the middle of harvest. Causes of the This led to the introduction of what became known as responsible government. Scholars for Upper Canada such as Stanely Ryerson a Marxist support the idea that the rebellion was a bourgeoisie democratic revolution. [63] The government continued their march and at Montgomery's Tavern a cannon shot into the dining room window. Upper Canada, later known as Canada West then Ontario in 1867, was originally organized in Districts. [by whom?] The Lower Canada Rebellion (French: La rébellion du Bas-Canada), commonly referred to as the Patriots' War (French: la Guerre des patriotes) by Quebecers, is the name given to the armed conflict between the rebels of Lower Canada (now Quebec) and the British colonial power of that province. [51], A few hours later Rolph sent a messenger to Mackenzie that Toronto rebels were ready for their arrival to the city and Mackenzie marched his troops towards Toronto. This view holds that the rebellion was caused by the inexcusable partisanship of lieutenant-governor  Asked by Wiki User. This became the organizational structure for the Rebellion and most of the rebel organizers were elected Constitutional Convention delegates. [44] When Rolph and Baldwin returned to Bond Head, they were informed that the government's offer had been withdrawn. [54], On Tuesday night MacNab arrived in Toronto with sixty men from the Hamilton area. The rebels dispersed in a panic after the first round of firing thinking the rebel's front row had been killed when they were simply dropping to the ground to allow those behind them to fire. The rebellion itself failed, but its very failure helped pave the way for moderate and careful political change in British North America. They were easily dispersed by government volunteers under the command of Sir Allan Napier MacNab. Upon receiving Rolph's message Lount marched a group of rebels into Toronto for December 4. [43], A loyalist named Robert Moodie saw the large gathering at Montgomery's Tavern and rode towards Toronto to warn the officials. His temperament and conviction led him to the point where he not only advocated armed rebellion against the colonial government but led it. It recommended that the Canadas be united into one colony. Although Lount wanted to launch an attack that night, other rebels leaders rejected that plan so that the troops could rest after their march and they could get information from Rolph about the status of rebels who lived in Toronto. Mackenzie saw the bank as a prop of the Government and demanded farmers withdraw the money they had deposited in the bank and public confidence in the bank decreased. The linkage of the "fight for responsible government" with disloyalty was solidified by the Rebellion of 1837, as reformers took up arms to finally break the "baneful domination" of the mother country. 1 Answer. The records in the 1837 Rebellion Losses of Upper Canada are organized in this document by District. After the rebellions, Both Papineau and Mckenzie fled to the United States, leaving their follower rebels to face their punishments. With the support of Americans who wished to liberate Canada from British rule, Mackenzie took control of Navy Island in the Niagara River, With the help of American volunteers, the various rebel groups launched raids against Upper Canada. [8] Despite repeated attempts, the elected Legislature – which had chartered the bank – could not obtain details on the bank's workings. [77], William Kilbourn stated that the removal of Radicals from Upper Canada politics, either through execution or their retreat to the United States, allowed the Clear Grits to be formed as a more moderate political force that had fewer disagreements with the Tories than the reformers. Terms in this set (11) Family Compact. Toronto,  [45], On December 4, Mackenzie and other rebels were patrolling the area and encountered Alderman John Powell (Canadian politician) and Archibald Macdonald (Canadian politician). There are immediate causes and long term factors that influenced the uprising of these rebellions. This is particularly true for the rebellion in Upper Canada. the United States. [49] Meanwhile, Bond Head proposed a negotiating session with rebel leaders to Marshall Spring Bidwell, who declined. With the British minority in Lower Canada Consequences of Rebellion in Lower Canada: Causes of the rebellion in Lower Canada. [78], 1837 populist rebellion against the government of Upper Canada, Francis Bond Head and the elections of 1836, Collapse of the international financial system, Consequences: execution or transportation, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFSewell2002 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFDent1885 (, Report on the Affairs of British North America, Archibald Macdonald (Canadian politician), "Closing the Last Chapter of the Atlantic Revolution: The 1837–38 Rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada", Lambton, John George, 1st Earl of Durham, in the, "William Lyon Mackenzie: the persistent hero", "MHS Transactions: Rebellion in Upper Canada, 1837", "Closing the Last Chapter of the Atlantic Revolution: The 1837-38 Rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada,", "The story of the Upper Canadian rebellion, Proceedings of the Legislative Council of Upper Canada on the bill sent up from the House of Assembly, entitled, An act to amend the jury laws of this province, The Rebellion of 1837 in Upper Canada: A collection of documents, Canadian state trials – Rebellion and invasion in the Canadas, 1837–1839, World Wars and Interwar Years (1914–1945), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Upper_Canada_Rebellion&oldid=997754061, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with dead external links from February 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "Rebellion in Upper Canada, 1837" by J. 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