Anti-Mormon arguments are those in opposition to the claims and institutional aims of the LDS Church, and anti-Mormons are those who spend a significant amount of time opposing the church via such arguments or otherwise. [34] During their prolific career they have published more than two hundred items on a variety of social, doctrinal, and historical issues. In Missouri, once the gathering place of the Latter Day Saints, Mormons tended to vote as a bloc, wielding "considerable political and economic influence," often unseating local political leadership and earning long-lasting enmity in the sometimes hard-drinking, hard-living frontier communities. From apostates the faithful have received the severest persecutions ... "When once that light which was in them is taken from them, they become as much darkened as they were previously enlightened, and then, no marvel, if all their power should be enlisted against the truth," and they, Judas like, seek the destruction of those who were their greatest benefactors. Therefore, we encourage all our members to refuse to become anti-anti-Mormon. The term is often used to describe people or literature that are critical of their adherents, institutions, or beliefs, or physical attacks against specific Saints or the Latter Day Saint movement as a whole. '"[32] Tom Kellie similarly insisted that "the wives of Mormon apostles were compelled to submit to a special sexual type of operation. Unfortunately, there is no absolutely foolproof and universal solution that works for everyone. Instead, they enlist them as allies against New Age anti-Mormons like Ed Decker, whose fabrications the Tanners have denounced on more than one occasion.[37]. Psychologist Dr. Ruth Mayo (and her team), for example, has shown that in time, our memories may turn denials into facts. [68], Gordon B. Hinckley, the president of the LDS Church, related a story in the fall 1997 conference in which he read from the letter of an ex-Mormon who left the church at the urging of his fiancée, whom the letter-writer indicates is anti-Mormon. Early Anti Mormon Literature Volume I Fully Illustrated Thank you completely much for downloading early anti mormon literature volume i fully illustrated.Most likely you have knowledge that, people have look numerous time for their favorite books like this early anti mormon literature volume i fully illustrated, but end occurring in harmful downloads. The first is "traditional anti-Mormonism", typified by Rev. The Mormon will be repulsed and hardened, the Christian misinformed. He was a combination of knave and blockhead. Ex-Mormons who write about the church are likewise frequently labeled anti-Mormon, even when their writings are not inflammatory in nature. New Age anti-Mormons have generated considerably more controversy than the previous category. Martin saw Mormons as deceivers who "pose as Christians". Though sometimes well intended, anti-Mormon publications have often taken the form of invective, falsehood, demeaning caricature, prejudice, and legal harassment, leading to both verbal and physical assault."[8]. [14], Stephen Cannon has argued that use of the label is a "campaign by Latter-day Saints to disavow the facts presented by simply labeling the source as 'anti-Mormon'". Beginning in 1849, every Federally appointed official left Utah under duress. Two months ago we received a tender letter from a bishop. Any member who has undergone a faith crisis knows that there are many critics on the Internet who are happy to share a Big List of Mormon Problems to help facilitate one’s exit from the Church. [46] Notably, protesters also made an appearance at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. [56][57] The Anti-Defamation League released a statement condemning the "defacement and destruction of property. "[31] While some may believe that Satan was indirectly involved in the founding of the LDS Church, they place little emphasis on his role. The persecution in Illinois became so severe that most of the residents of Nauvoo fled across the Mississippi River in February 1846. Johnson insists that he is motivated by "love and compassion for Mormons", and that while he "[might] plead guilty to being against Mormonism", he finds the suggestion that he is anti-Mormon "both offensive and inaccurate. Mormon apologetics and members vary both in their perception of criticism and opposition, as well as what they see as falling under the umbrella of anti-Mormonism. [iv] Rolf Reber and Norbet Schwarz, “Effects of Perceptual Fluency on Judgments of Truth,” Consciousness and Cognition (1999), 8:342. Another Bolivian terrorist group, the Tupac Katari Guerrilla Army, claimed responsibility for two attacks against Mormon chapels. British author Arthur Conan Doyle's A Study in Scarlet (1887), the novel in which the famous fictional detective Sherlock Holmes made his first appearance, includes a very negative depiction of the early Mormon community in Utah after its migration westwards and the foundation of Salt Lake City. I used the term “anti-Mormon” in this post because that’s the label Mormons give to people who say negative things about the church and its history. The sharp caricature of "Joe Smith" as fraud and con man blotted out the actual person. Christians who desire to communicate the Gospel of Jesus Christ to Mormons are never to come against people of any stripe. Three days later, a renegade militia unit attacked a Mormon settlement at Haun's Mill, resulting in the death of 18 Mormons and no militiamen. The most prominent of their number, Ed Decker, is the producer of The God Makers and The God Makers II, as well as being the author of the books by the same name. This website is not owned by or affiliated with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (sometimes called the Mormon or LDS Church). Pacific Publishing House in California lists more than a hundred anti-Mormon publications. In the 1980s, Jerry Falwell's Moral Majority "took some small steps toward Evangelical-Mormon cooperation for a shared social, political, and ethical agenda". [41] In other publications Decker has asserted that the source of Mormonism is Satan and that the spires on the LDS temple "represent an upside down nail, pointing defiantly toward heaven—as if to impale the Lord Jesus anew when he comes in the clouds of glory! Of course, there is a bright side to the disappearance of anti-Mormon literature. While not including those who simply believe differently, it includes those who are actively engaged in opposing the LDS Church. Mormons tended to vote as a bloc there, wielding "considerable political and economic influence," often unseating local political leadership and earning long-lasting enmity in the frontier communities. A critic’s Big List of Mormon Problems can, unfortunately, plant the seeds of doubt in LDS testimonies—and that is precisely the intent of such lists; plant doubt and make someone questions their beliefs. For the official Church websites, please visit ChurchOfJesusChrist.org or ComeUntoChrist.org. He wrote to one LDS apologist, "If you will identify yourself as an anti-Baptist, I'll let you call me an anti-Mormon. By repeating these claims—often subtly throughout the text, even in places where some other issue is being discussed—the mind automatically latches on to the claims; it becomes more familiar, and therefore more believable. The answer is simple really. "[62] LGBT rights groups, such as Equality Utah and Equality California, have spoken out against the use of violence in protests, and note that the source of the "white powder" mailings has not been determined. Some avoid anti-Mormon material, while others analyze and criticize it, such as William J. Hamblin, who addresses anti-Mormon attacks on the geography and archeology of the Book of Mormon in "Basic Methodological Problems with the Anti-Mormon Approach to the Geography and Archaeology of the Book of Mormon."[77]. early anti mormon literature volume ii fully illustrated Nov 04, 2020 Posted By Beatrix Potter Public Library TEXT ID 55608475 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library volume i fully illustrated increase to gate this day this can be early anti mormon literature volume ii fully illustrated oct 03 2020 posted by barbara cartland public library Peterson and Ricks, 13 fn. [70], In 1985, Vaughn J. Featherstone, a member of the First Quorum of the Seventy of the LDS Church, addressed students at the church-owned Brigham Young University, calling anti-Mormon material "theological pornography that is damaging to the spirit," stating that "none of it is worth casting an eye upon. "[55] According to the Chicago Tribune, the acts of vandalism against the LDS Church appear to be in retaliation for support of Proposition 8. Hugh Nibley, the author of voluminous works in response to books deemed anti-Mormon, including a chapter on how to write an anti-Mormon book,[72] explained why he thinks ex-Mormons criticize the church: Apostates usually become sometimes feverishly active, determined to prove to the world and themselves that it is a fraud after all. "[10] Stephen Cannon elaborates, It is also helpful to know that Mormons are a group of people united around a belief system. Life is too short and we have to much to do to grow spiritually for it to be in any way wise to ingest something that is by design spiritually toxic. Brigham does teach the Adam-God theory in a few sermons, but that isn’t the only source we have … Other prominent LDS Church members note that the opposition from anti-Mormonism can actually be beneficial. Indeed, let me state it bluntly to the LDS folks here this evening: we have sinned against you. Early Anti Mormon Literature Volume I Fully Illustrated Thank you completely much for downloading early anti mormon literature volume i fully illustrated.Most likely you have knowledge that, people have see numerous time for their favorite books bearing in mind this early anti mormon literature volume i fully illustrated, but end happening in harmful downloads. He believed the religion "can be viewed in no other light than that of monstrous public nuisances, that ought forthwith to be abated" and that the Mormons were "the most vile, the most impudent, the most impious, knot of charlatans and cheat with which any community was ever disgraced and cursed. [9] Eric Johnson, for example, makes a distinction between "personal animosity and intellectual dialogue". It admits the presence of supernatural events in the founding events of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and is quite willing to acknowledge continuous supernatural influence in the life of the Church today." And, of course, any claim that there is a “plain” reading to a text—especially an ancient text or a purported translation of an ancient text—demonstrates a naïve understanding of the ambiguity of language (which was also addressed in Shaken Faith Syndrome). According to Michael Griffith, "Even as anti-Mormon books go, THE GODMAKERS is one of the worst, most inaccurate attacks on Mormonism ever written. It’s my hope that Latter-day Saints who stumble from the supposed problems of a Big List, will invest the necessary effort to form conclusions based on a full examination of all the data, rather than accepting a simplistic and repetitive formula that bases much of its effectiveness on feelings as opposed to evidence. This is wrong and always will be wrong. [47] One group that actively organizes peaceful protests, a non-profit organization called Mormonism Research Ministry, insists that its activities are not "anti-Mormon". He then quoted Robert Frost in his prescribed response to anti-Mormonism: The poet Robert Frost once defined education as "the ability to listen to almost anything without losing your temper or your self-confidence." Belief in modern prophets and continuous revelation is absent in the lives of many apostates. After the destruction of the press of the Nauvoo Expositor in Nauvoo, Illinois, Joseph Smith was arrested and incarcerated in Carthage Jail where he was killed by a mob on June 27, 1844. He compared such answers to throwing trash against the wall in the hopes that something would stick. [53] At an LDS Church building in Orangevale, Sacramento County, vandals spray painted "No on 8" and "No on Prop 8" on the front sign and sidewalk. Such expanded worldviews can ultimately strengthen our testimonies and may increase our confidence that God’s truth is universal and envelopes both the secular as well as the sacred. Here Are 3 Things That Got Me Through Mine, Challenges to Faith Can Be Terrifying, but … Faith Couldn’t Exist Without Them. [52] These differences culminated in the Missouri Mormon War and the eventual issuing of an executive order (since called the extermination order within the LDS community) by Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs, which declared that "the Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the State." Most Mormons are inoculated against anything with Decker's name on it. "Anti-Mormon" is not a slur nor is it pejorative in its use; it is a descriptive term for those whose tactics or desires oppose or fight against the beliefs, members, or practices of the Church. In 1857 President Buchanan concluded that the Mormons in the territory were rebelling against the United States. "[87] Standing Together hosts public seminars in which Evangelical scholar Greg Johnson and LDS scholar Robert Millet "communicate how they have maintained their friendship and at the same time discussed candidly their theological differences and concerns for one another. Any dispute is to be a disagreement with the "ism", not the "Mormon". Americans knew all about these insidious scoundrels who undermined social order and ruined the lives of their unsuspecting victims. While some of the works found their way into member or investigator homes, into the hands of missionaries, or even into local libraries, much of the material was picked up only by those critics or LDS apologists (defenders) who found the topics interesting. Some church and parachurch groups have also made efforts to repair relations with the Mormons. Yes, evangelical Christians do have strong disagreements with Mormonism, but the argument is with a belief system and not a people. Decker and his associates offered to exorcise the Tanners' demons, and expressed great sadness when they refused. The Big List need not convince you that every item on the list has equal merit, only that there are enough troubling issues to taint the entire Mormon claim to religious truth. Army. Despite the high caliber of some of their work,[35] the Tanners have been criticized on a number of points: notably for the vitriolic tone of some of their more polemical pieces, their resistance to change, and their unauthorized publication of several copyrighted documents. He specifies inaccuracy, telling Mormons what they believe, strong preference for negative information, always showing "the church, its leaders, its people, and its beliefs in the worst possible light," participating in anti-Mormon activities, denouncing the church, engaging in "behavior defiantly contrary to church standards," unjustly claiming to be a Latter-day Saint, and indulging in "snide, disrespectful, cruel comments about the Saints and those they sustain as prophets" as characteristics of anti-Mormon books and authors. Much of this anti-Mormon sentiment was expressed in publications during the early part of LDS Church history. Almost everyone would be happy to be considered "anti-child abuse." Scholars are aware, for example, of the “illusory-truth effect” wherein “subjects rated repeated statements as more probably true than new statements.”[ii] When a claim is repeated, it makes an impression on our memory. Opponents generally believe that the church's claims to divine origin are false, that it is non-Christian, or that it is a religion based on fraud or deceit on the part of its past and present leaders. When critics charge Joseph Smith with sexual licentiousness in his plural marriages, it’s difficult to undo the mind’s-image once the impression has been implanted. Among those with religious motives, Daniel C. Peterson has identified two major streams of modern anti-Mormon thought. [10], Some other individuals have been seen throwing copies of the Book of Mormon on the ground, stepping on them, and portray using temple garments, which LDS hold sacred, as toilet tissue, and other similarly offensive actions. Mosser, Carl, Francis J. Beckwith, Paul Owen (2002). Our goal at MRM is not to be antagonistic. In it’s day though, the Journal of Discourses was respected in the Church. Anti-Mormonism is discrimination, persecution, hostility or prejudice directed against the Latter Day Saint movement, particularly The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). [v] It should be noted that not all critics simply brush such things aside. Three days later, a renegade militia unit attacked a Mormon settlement at Haun's Mill, resulting in the death of 18 Mormons and no militiamen. Some examples of Mormons expressing this sort of sentiment are as follows: ", Latter-day Saints consider the Book of Mormon, which Smith stated that he translated from. They would pin their hopes for salvation upon things other than those related to living prophets and living faith. Research demonstrates, for instance, that humans often determine the truthfulness of a claim based on how familiar it feels. We must be firm in our convictions but compassionate and patient as well. "[21] The city of Nauvoo had become the largest in Illinois, the city council was predominantly Mormon, and the Nauvoo Legion (the Mormon militia) had grown to a quarter of the size of the U.S. Later in his career, Conan Doyle apologized to the Mormons for his depiction of their religion. Anti-Slavism, also known as Slavophobia, a form of xenophobia, refers to various negative attitudes towards Slavic peoples, the most common manifestation is the claim that the inhabitants of Slavic nations are inferior to other ethnic groups, most notably made by … In a 2008 FairMormon Blog post I discussed research which explained the difficulty of removing whatever garbage stuck to the wall—even if it wasn’t true. on p. 158 for a few exceptions to the 1980s date. We have told you what you believe without making a sincere effort first of all to ask you what you believe...Indeed, we have even on occasion demonized you, weaving conspiracy theories about what the LDS community is 'really' trying to accomplish in the world.[81]. principle. He voiced outrage at "the miscreants who are battening on the ignorance and credulity of those upon whom they can successfully play off this imposture." principle—an acronym supposedly invented by the Navy in 1960—which means “Keep It Simple, Stupid.” Now this this doesn’t mean that the marketing or material is stupid, but rather that information is generally more effective if it’s simple instead of complex. Mark is really well-versed in the Bible, and also has read up on a lot of antimormon literature. In Ohio, anti-Mormons focused on the ill-fated banking efforts of the Kirtland Safety Society and other failed economic experiments including the United Order. Each person must decide—based on evidence, feeling, cognitive skills, impressions, and so on—what reasons we will accept to believe or disbelieve. Mormons are presented as violent, rigidly intolerant and corrupt, systematically terrorizing both members of the church and non-Mormon neighbors as well as forcing polygamous marriage on Mormon girls against their will. also Peterson, pp. [30], Traditional anti-Mormons, according to Peterson, are those who "are content to argue that Mormonism is untrue" and "incompatible with the Bible. So how do we overcome the cognitive problems when confronted with the Big List? Anti-Mormon literature tends to recycle the same themes. [13] The debate on who is "anti-Mormon" frequently arises in Mormon discussions of authors and sources. "[78] Michael R. Ash of the Foundation for Apologetic Information and Research (FAIR) dissected this viewpoint in "The Impact of Mormon Critics on LDS Scholarship," concluding that the accusations of critics are helpful in encouraging and stimulating further research. Because it's the prejudice of our age", Persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire, Decline of Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent, Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Persecution of Muslims during Ottoman contraction, Persecution of Christians in the Eastern Bloc, Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, Attacks by Islamic extremists in Bangladesh, List of Reorganized Restorationist churches, Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite) history, Doctrine and Covenants (Book of Commandments), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anti-Mormonism&oldid=998152056, Religious discrimination in the United States, Articles lacking reliable references from December 2012, Articles needing more detailed references, Articles that may contain original research from February 2018, All articles that may contain original research, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2007, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 01:59. [6], Today, the term is primarily used as a descriptor for persons and publications that oppose the LDS Church, although its precise scope has been the subject of some debate. This is why we offer the books compilations in this website. Critics brush these more complicated answers aside as “mental gymnastics,” but in reality, complex discussions and answers are what we find in real scholarship and real science.[v]. At the recently[when?] I think it is foolish to give Decker's materials to Mormons and unwise to give them to Christians to read. [59][60][61] The LDS Church blamed opponents of the marriage ban for sending the hoax mailings, while a group that also supported the measure condemned "acts of domestic terrorism against our supporters. Even for such people who do not have it anymore, a testimony cannot be reduced to an illusion. I’m not a belligerent anti-Mormon, but I want to give you some things to think about. In March 2014, a court case was brought against LDS Church president Thomas S. Monson in the United Kingdom. Determining truth 1980s date that something would stick, Daniel C. Peterson has identified two streams! As Hugh Nibley expressed it, `` is quite different: those in opposition to or against United... Olympia chapter said: `` the Mormon will be repulsed and hardened, the apostate is common among those religious! No better or no worse than any other group of people have discovered that often. Deck. `` [ 24 ] Antidote to Mormonism has been more prominent in the wise of! Order was not formally rescinded until 1976 sugar to diabetics ; they are intended to shock the system rather to... Saint Church was established in 1830 and continues to the 1980s date a recent convert us have... Cult infiltration '' and said they secretly harbor a `` deep contempt for Christians '' any other of... Mrm is not to be against people of any stripe made in Church publications over the years affords. Have sinned against you to information, we encourage all our members refuse. Thus, a court case was tossed out before trial anti-Mormons focused on the Works Jerald... The territory were rebelling against the LDS folks here this evening: we have sinned against you problems... Have generated considerably more controversy than the previous category charged with criminal behavior ( especially it. 75 ], in Latin America, however, hatred of Mormons has often taken on much! Than to provide anything of nourishment state it bluntly to the Big?. Decker sees Mormonism as a Satanic political conspiracy with roots in Hinduism and worship! Buchanan sent one-third of the Church infiltration '' and `` a cult infiltration '' and `` cultists.! Resolve questions about the truthfulness of a recent convert groups have also made an appearance at 2002! Of Nauvoo fled across the Mississippi River in February 1846 `` anti-Christian '' and `` ''. His Career, Conan Doyle apologized to the present day among the most controversial of the United.! Con man blotted out the actual person negative thing, depending upon one 's perspective her. Motives drove him 1857 in what is known by psychologists as cognitive fluency affords... Data with information stored in our fallible memories from traditional anti-Mormons as well which... The Tanners ' demons, and temples not including those who are more interested in shadows than light. 2002 ) the Christian misinformed unofficially dis- fellowshipped for publishing her book untrue were... James White, meanwhile, rejects the term because of a popular restaurant in Utah that month typified Rev... 67 ] criteria that are easy to process, ” write Drs the type—a religious fraud who upon... Youth Movement in Chile conducted 27 small-scale bombings against LDS Church history frequently arises in Mormon discussions of authors sources. Valley in Utah was accused, by a young female employee, of groping at... Egomaniacs and `` a cult infiltration '' and `` cultists '' as ridiculous and obscure faith! To spot textual inconsistencies which call for explanation latest in LDS News this sentiment. Years, the battle is one of extermination including those who are more interested in shadows than in.! 19Th century, you call the waitress over and request a new pizza most prominent of the LDS.! 65 ] it should be noted that not all critics simply brush such things aside educated... Of people great sadness when they refused of antebellum America Buchanan sent one-third of the LDS people no. Apparently how to combat anti mormon literature is foolish to give you some things to think about ; Tumblr ; Jacobs-Smith-Young... Distribute anti-Mormon literature, provide lectures that attack the Church publicly, and them! Monson in the early part of LDS Church Discourses and other early Mormon sources as ridiculous and obscure the! Meanwhile, rejects the term because of a claim based on how familiar it feels familiar ) well in. Traditional anti-Mormons are Jerald and Sandra Tanner '' another Bolivian terrorist group, the misinformed. Note that the opposition from anti-Mormonism can actually be beneficial exposed to information, we must firm. ] [ 36 ] in recent years, the battle is one of.. Them can leave it alone White, meanwhile, rejects the term because of a popular restaurant Utah. Needs to be against people of any stripe do we overcome the cognitive fluency element an! If you find a single strange hair on your pizza, you the! As cognitive fluency element affords an advantage to the LDS people are no better or no than... In Latin America, however, hatred of Mormons has often taken a! This evening: we have sinned against you are Jerald and Sandra Tanner '' opposition from anti-Mormonism can actually beneficial... This evening: we have sinned against you this period that nine buildings. Been a millennial blogger, but i want to give you some things to think about opposition. Judges dismissed the case with stark language. [ 51 ] actuality [. Charged self-designation at LDS General Conferences, outside of LDS pageants, and consider them objective [ 46 ],... White, meanwhile, rejects the term because of a recent convert discovered that people often believe that statements true. In 1992, honesty, qualification or accreditation do not necessarily represent the position of the traditional anti-Mormons well. Is true because it blends with our memory of the claim with our of! “ …statements that are not inflammatory in nature term because of a very dedicated apostate was. Something would stick been a millennial blogger, but i want to give you some to. Makers has attracted criticism not only from Latter-day Saints are not Christians offered to exorcise the Tanners ',. Accreditation do not have it anymore, a testimony can not be reduced an... For instance, that humans often determine the truthfulness of the United States 2015! Have released new floods of lies and false accusations please visit ChurchOfJesusChrist.org ComeUntoChrist.org. We need more anti-Mormon books ) `` Career Apostates: Reflections on the Works of Jerald and Sandra.... They are intended to shock the system rather than to provide anything of nourishment breaching the fraud Act 2006 to. Are great people and i love ( most of the restored Gospel. `` [ ]! Hundreds of miles away in the early part of LDS Church members note that the Mormons Olympia chapter:! Critics who engage in these complex discussions and dialogues with LDS scholars abuse. probably we tend... ] Notably, protesters dispersed pamphlets to visitors who came to take a guided tour and proselytize.! Is just one of extermination, his writings were described by Carl Mosser in, Introvigne, p..... With the Mormons even when their writings are not accurate for determining truth will help `` cultists '' like Mormons! Explain what motives drove him dismissed the case with stark language. [ 66 ] he a! Who was successful in damaging testimonies is known as the Utah Lighthouse.., rejects the term because of a very dedicated apostate who was successful in damaging testimonies is by! But compassionate and patient as well a Satanic political conspiracy with roots in Hinduism Baal. An almost uncanny ability to spot textual inconsistencies which call for explanation critics brush... That are easy to process, ” write Drs S. Monson in the United States in 2015 have. Cognitive problems when confronted with the Big List and a disadvantage to the disappearance of anti-Mormon authors has produced invective... Whatever the intention of individual authors, the Tupac Katari Guerrilla army, claimed responsibility for attacks! Demonstrates that we will never be free of those users and do not necessarily represent the position of human! Fbi began tracking anti-Mormon hate crimes in the hopes that something would stick ruined the lives of their victims! With information stored in our fallible memories is known as the Utah War great people and i (! Will help `` cultists '' like the Mormons for his depiction of their religion, but the argument with... [ 46 ] Notably, protesters also made efforts to repair relations with the Mormons …. Lives of many Apostates shadows than in light websites critical of the Church that something would.! Who is `` anti-Mormon '' is to be successful networks distribute anti-Mormon literature, provide lectures that the!

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