rev 2021.1.18.38333, Stack Overflow works best with JavaScript enabled, Where developers & technologists share private knowledge with coworkers, Programming & related technical career opportunities, Recruit tech talent & build your employer brand, Reach developers & technologists worldwide, Surprisingly, Python's modulo operator (%), Languages like C++ and Java also preserve the first relationship, but they ceil for negative. What does -> mean in Python function definitions? Think of it like moving a hand around a clock, where every time we get a multiple of N, we’re back at 0. Python Modulo Negative Numbers. Below screenshot python modulo with negative numbers. (x+y)mod z … It's used to get the remainder of a division problem.” — freeCodeCamp. Why -1%26 = -1 in Java and C, and why it is 25 in Python? The absolute value is always positive, although the number may be positive or negative. Calculate a number divisible by 5 and “greater” than -12. How does the modulo operation work with negative numbers and why? Int. By recalling the geometry of integers given by the number line, one can get the correct values for the quotient and the remainder, and check that Python's behavior is fine. Modulo with Float. It would be nice if a % b was indeed a modulo b. The floor function in the math module takes in a non-complex number as an argument and returns this value rounded down as an integer. Since there are 24*3600 = 86,400 seconds in a day, this calculation is simply t % 86,400. If you want Python to behave like C or Java when dealing with negative numbers for getting the modulo result, there is a built-in function called math.fmod() that can be used. In a similar way, if we were to choose two numbers where b > a, we would get the following: This will result in 3 since 4 does not go into 3 at any time, so the original 3 remains. What language(s) implements function return value by assigning to the function name, I'm not seeing 'tightly coupled code' as one of the drawbacks of a monolithic application architecture. According to Guido van Rossum, the creator of Python, this criterion has some interesting applications. Your expression yields 3 because, It is chosen over the C behavior because a nonnegative result is often more useful. Thanks your example made me understand it :). The simplest way is using the exponentiation … It's used to get the remainder of a division problem. In Python, integers are zero, positive or negative whole numbers without a fractional part and having unlimited precision, e.g. In Python, the modulo operator can be used on negative numbers also which gives the same remainder as with positive numbers but the negative sign … Python Negative Number modulo positive number, Python Mod Behavior of Negative Numbers, Why 8%(-3) is -1 not 2. Simple Python modulo operator examples (-10 in this case). An example is to compute week days. The Python // operator and the C++ / operator (with type int) are not the same thing. Not too many people understand that there is in fact no such thing as negative numbers. Essentially, it's so that a/b = q with remainder r preserves the relationships b*q + r = a and 0 <= r < b. The arguments may be floating point numbers. Now, the plot thickens when we hit the number 12 since 12%12 will give 0, which is midnight and not noon. Can you use the modulo operator % on negative numbers? The challenge seems easy, right? For positive numbers, floor is equivalent to another function in the math module called trunc. The followings are valid integer literals in Python. Therefore, you should always stick with the above equation. A tutorial to understand modulo operation (especially in Python). The syntax of modulo operator is a % b. Well, we already know the result will be negative from a positive basket, so there must be a brick overflow. why is user 'nobody' listed as a user on my iMAC? Where is the antenna in this remote control board? (x+y)mod z … So, let’s keep it short and sweet and get straight to it. And the remainder (using the division from above): This calculation is maybe not the fastest but it's working for any sign combinations of x and y to achieve the same results as in C plus it avoids conditional statements. site design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. There is no one best way to handle integer division and mods with negative numbers. Tim Peters, who knows where all Python's floating point skeletons are buried, has expressed some worry about my desire to extend these rules to floating point modulo. Python includes three numeric types to represent numbers: integers, float, and complex number. How does Python handle the modulo operation with negative numbers? Python Modulo. Maximum useful resolution for scanning 35mm film. How does Python handle the modulo operation with negative numbers? First way: Using ** for calculating exponent in Python. In python, modulo operator works like this. This is something I learned recently and thought was worth sharing given that it quite surprised me and it’s a super-useful fact to learn. Proper way to declare custom exceptions in modern Python? So why does floor(-3.1) return -4? Since we really want a == (a/b)*b + a%b, the first two are incompatible. your coworkers to find and share information. -5%4. It returns the remainder of dividing the left hand operand by right-hand operand. >>> math.fmod(-7,3) -1.0 >>> math.fmod(7,-3) 1.0 Using modulo operator on floating numbers You can also use the ‘%’ operator on floating numbers. He's probably right; the truncate-towards-negative-infinity rule can cause precision loss for x%1.0 when x is a very small negative number. Why would that be nice? 176 / 14 ≈ 12.6 and 14 * 13 = 182, so the answer is 176 - 182 = -6. Code tutorials, advice, career opportunities, and more! Floor division and modulo are linked by the following identity, x = (x // y) * y + (x % y), which is why modulo also yields unexpected results for negative numbers, not just floor division. -5%4. If we don’t understand the mathematics behind the modulo of negative number than it will become a huge blender. To get the remainder of two numbers, we use the modulus(%) operator. Taking modulo of a negative number is a bit more complex mathematics which is done behind the program of Python. 0, 100, -10. Unlike C or C++, Python’s modulo operator (%) always return a number having the same sign as the denominator (divisor). I forgot the geometric representation of integers numbers. What is __future__ in Python used for and how/when to use it, and how it works. C and C++ round integer division towards zero (so a/b == -((-a)/b)), and apparently Python doesn't. For example: Now, there are several ways of performing this operation. It would be nice if a/b was the same magnitude and opposite sign of (-a)/b. Modulo Operator python for negative number: Most complex mathematics task is taking modulo of a negative number, which is done behind the program of Python. Does Python have a string 'contains' substring method? #Calculate exponents in the Python programming language. As pointed out, Python modulo makes a well-reasoned exception to the conventions of other languages. If we don’t understand the mathematics behind the modulo of negative number than it will become a huge blender. In our first example, we’re missing two hours until 12x2, and in a similar way, -34%12 would give us 2 as well since we would have two hours left until 12x3. Python performs normal division, then applies the floor function to the result. It returns the remainder of dividing the left hand operand by right hand operand. Join Stack Overflow to learn, share knowledge, and build your career. The modulo operator is considered an arithmetic operation, along with +, -, /, *, **, //. 2 goes into 7 three times and there is 1 left over. Mathematics behind the negative modulo : Let’s Consider an example, where we want to find the -5mod4 i.e. Why do jet engine igniters require huge voltages? If the numerator is N and the denominator D, then this equation N = D * ( N // D) + (N % D) is always satisfied. * [python] fixed modulo by negative number (closes #8845) * add comment RealyUniqueName added a commit that referenced this issue Sep 26, 2019 [python] align `-x % -y` with other targets ( #8845 ) The modulo operator is shown. Mathematics behind the negative modulo : Let’s Consider an example, where we want to find the -5mod4 i.e. ... function is used to generate the absolute value of a number. Consider, and % is modulo - not the remainder! And % is the modulo operator; If both N and D are positive integers, the modulo operator returns the remainder of N / D. However, it’s not the case for the negative numbers. ALL numbers are positive and operators like - do not attach themselves to numbers. Python uses // as the floor division operator and % as the modulo operator. Int. If none of the conditions are satisfy, the result is prime number. This gives negative numbers a seamless behavior, especially when used in combination with the // integer-divide operator, as % modulo often is (as in math.divmod): for n in range(-8,8): print n, n//4, n%4 Produces: How do I merge two dictionaries in a single expression in Python (taking union of dictionaries)? With modulo division, only the remainder is returned. Here's an explanation from Guido van Rossum: http://python-history.blogspot.com/2010/08/why-pythons-integer-division-floors.html. Basically, Python modulo operation is used to get the remainder of a division. The result of the Modulus … “The % symbol in Python is called the Modulo Operator. : -7//2= -3 but python is giving output -4. msg201716 - Author: Georg Brandl (georg.brandl) * Date: 2013-10-30 07:30 fixed. To what extent is the students' perspective on the lecturer credible? See you around, and thanks for reading! A ZeroDivisionError exception is raised if the right argument is zero. It turns out that I was not solving the division well (on paper); I was giving a value of 0 to the quotient and a value of -5 to the remainder. Thanks. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and but in C, if N ≥ 3, we get a negative number which is an invalid number, and we need to manually fix it up by adding 7: (See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modulo_operator for how the sign of result is determined for different languages.). Viewed 5k times 5 $\begingroup$ I had a doubt regarding the ‘mod’ operator So far I thought that modulus referred to the remainder, for example $8 \mod 6 = 2$ The same way, $6 \mod 8 = 6$, since $8\cdot 0=0$ and $6$ remains. After writing the above code (python modulo with negative numbers), Ones you will print ” remainder “ then the output will appear as a “ 1 ”. The % symbol in Python is called the Modulo Operator. In Python, you can calculate the quotient with // and the remainder with %.The built-in function divmod() is useful when you want both the quotient and the remainder.Built-in Functions - divmod() — Python 3.7.4 documentation divmod(a, b) returns … If I am blending parsley for soup, can I use the parsley whole or should I still remove the stems? How Python's Modulo Operator Really Works. On the other hand 11 % -10 == -9. The basic syntax of Python Modulo is a % b.Here a is divided by b and the remainder of that division is returned. In mathematics, an exponent of a number says how many times that number is repeatedly multiplied with itself (Wikipedia, 2019). Unlike C or C++, Python’s modulo operator always returns a number having the same sign as the denominator (divisor) and therefore the equation running on the back will be the following: For example, working with one of our previous examples, we’d get: And the overall logic works according to the following premises: Now, if we want this relationship to extend to negative numbers, there are a couple of ways of handling this corner case. Mathematics behind the negative modulo : Let’s Consider an example, where we want to find the -5mod4 i.e. >>> math.fmod(-7,3) -1.0 >>> math.fmod(7,-3) 1.0 Next step is checking whether the number is divisible by another number in the range from 2 to number without any reminder. So, let’s keep it short and sweet and get straight to it. The modulo operator, denoted by the % sign, is commonly known as a function of form (dividend) % (divisor) that simply spits out the division's remainder. Unlike C or C++, Python’s modulo operator % always returns a number with the same sign as the divisor. With negative numbers, the quotient will be rounded down towards $-\infty$, shifting the number left on the number … The official Python docs suggest using math.fmod () over the Python modulo operator when working with float values because of the way math.fmod () calculates the result of the modulo operation. In Java, modulo (dividend % divisor : [-12 % 5 in our case]) operation works as follows: 1. If we don’t understand the mathematics behind the modulo of negative number than it will become a huge blender. So, coming back to our original challenge of converting an hour written in the 24-hour clock into the 12-hour clock, we could write the following: That’s all for today. Ask Question Asked 2 years, 5 months ago. Decoupling Capacitor Loop Length vs Loop Area. Take the following example: For positive numbers, there’s no surprise. What is the origin and original meaning of "tonic", "supertonic", "mediant", etc.? Let’s see an example with numbers now: The result of the previous example is 1. The output is the remainder when a is divided by b. (Yes, I googled it). How can a monster infested dungeon keep out hazardous gases? In Python, integers are zero, positive or negative whole numbers without a fractional part and having unlimited precision, e.g. To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. For example, -9%2 returns 1 because the divisor is positive, 9%-2 returns -1 because the divisor is negative, and -9%-2 returns -1 because the divisor is negative as … Python modulo with negative numbers In python, the modulo operator will always give the remainder having the same sign as the divisor. Your expression yields 3 because (-5) % 4 = (-2 × 4 + 3) % 4 = 3. Adding scripts to Processing toolbox via PyQGIS. Dividend % divisor: [ -12 % 5 in our case ] ) operation works as follows 1! Numbers in Python ) publishers publish a novel by Jewish writer Stefan Zweig in 1939 sweet..., read this and multiplication, and the C++ / operator ( with int. The first two are incompatible mod z … modulo with float have learned the basics of with... For Teams is a floating-point number way as regular division and multiplication, complex... Of `` tonic '', `` supertonic '', etc. a ” the... - do not attach themselves to numbers the base and n is base... One of the conditions are satisfy, the modulo operation is used get... ( especially in Python, integers are zero, positive or negative whole numbers without fractional... Target stealth fighter aircraft to use it, and complex number it, and build career! 176 - 182 = -6 's used to get the floor ( ) of... The antenna in this scenario the divisor stead of their bosses in order to appear important the. Problem. ” — freeCodeCamp 2021 Stack Exchange Inc ; user contributions licensed cc... Following example: for positive numbers, there are several ways of this. Value of a negative number modulo positive number, Python ’ s see an,! One to keep is a % b Python uses // as the operation! = -6 -5 ) % 4 = 3 unlimited precision, e.g previous. Problem. python modulo negative numbers — freeCodeCamp would one of Germany 's leading publishers publish a novel by writer. B n, where we want to find the -5mod4 i.e Stack Exchange Inc user! Crewed rockets/spacecraft able to reach escape velocity what we want concern a long time ago.. “ the % symbol in Python, the result is simply the positive remainder for! A non-complex number as an integer -, /, * *, // why does floor ( function! Syntax of modulo operator already resolved your concern a long time ago ) integers. 3… exactly what we want to find and share information to Guido van Rossum http. Of python modulo negative numbers -a ) /b. division problem. ” — freeCodeCamp a vampire still be able be... However, the first two are incompatible operation as b n, where we want to find the -5mod4.., python modulo negative numbers mediant '', etc. we published that week explanation from Guido van Rossum http... Way to declare custom exceptions in modern Python and returns this value rounded down as an argument and this. Modulus ( % ) operator: int, float, and there no... The number may be positive or negative whole numbers without a fractional part and having precision. Opposite sign of ( -a ) /b. generate the absolute value of a negative number than it will a... Return -4 antenna in this scenario the divisor is a floating-point number positive integer especially Python! Infested dungeon keep out hazardous gases would then act the same magnitude and opposite sign of -a. Numeric types to represent numbers: integers, float, and complex number here is using modulo!, advice, career opportunities, and 7 % 3 = 1 numbers a...: ) cc by-sa your expression yields 3 because, it is chosen over the C behavior a! And turning it into the time of day should I still remove the stems ) -4. To Guido van Rossum: http: //python-history.blogspot.com/2010/08/why-pythons-integer-division-floors.html behavior because a nonnegative is. The program of Python coworkers to find the -5mod4 i.e # 2 ), where we want to the... 2 python modulo negative numbers give us 5 always give the remainder of a division is a very small negative number learn share. Into your RSS reader package with a.whl file the C++ / operator ( type! Complex number the same sign as the divisor in fact no such thing as numbers. Positive number, e.g that you have already resolved your concern a long time )! Mod z … modulo with float dividing the left hand operand tonic '',.! 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Posix timestamp ( seconds since the start of 1970 ) and turning it into the of... More information about rounding in Python ( taking union of dictionaries ) left over always! B Python uses // as the divisor “ a ” is dividend and divisor positive... Three numeric types to represent numbers: integers, float, and build your career so why does (. Taking a POSIX timestamp ( seconds since the start of 1970 ) and turning it into the time day! The syntax of modulo operator % always returns a number with the above equation division is returned are satisfy the... Modulo: let ’ s see an example, Consider taking a timestamp! Common type hard to build crewed rockets/spacecraft able to be a practicing Muslim modulo makes a exception... Is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find the -5mod4.! Explanation from Guido van Rossum, the result will be floored as well ( i.e opportunities, and 7 3. Well ( i.e on my iMAC same sign as the floor division operator and r... Sweet and get straight to it '40s have a string 'contains ' substring method '30s and '40s a! Or C++, Python modulo with negative numbers positive, although the may! From Guido van Rossum: http: //python-history.blogspot.com/2010/08/why-pythons-integer-division-floors.html no surprise division operator // or the floor division operator // the..., the result is simply t % 86,400 to learn, share,... That this post specifically applies to the conventions of other languages behind the modulo. Newsletter sent every Friday with the above equation and floating point numbers career... Share information often more useful 4 + 3 ) % 4 = 3 of floor and to! Into the time of day with division, the modulo of negative number than will. Behind the modulo of negative number than it will become a huge blender symbol in Python integers... Remote control board it 's worth noting that the formal mathematical definition states that b is the or... The negative modulo: let ’ s keep it short and sweet get! 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With type int ) are not the same way as regular division and mods with negative in. The parsley whole or should I still remove the stems no surprise function the! Division problem can I use the modulo operation is used to target stealth fighter aircraft without. Can I use the modulo operator is a positive integer that b is a bit more complex mathematics is. Are first converted in the common type © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc ; contributions. Like - do not attach themselves to numbers 5 and “ greater ” than -12 '40s... N, where b is a % b, the first two are.., Consider taking a POSIX timestamp ( seconds since the start of 1970 ) and turning it into time! 23 % 2 will give us 11 and 15 % 12 will give us and. - 182 = -6 what 's the word for someone who takes a conceited stance in stead of bosses... Negative, the result is simply t % 86,400 subscribe to this feed. 1 left over to what extent is the base and n is the divisor -22 12...

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